Unit Eight: 1920-1940

Twenties Domestic Affairs

America of the 1920s was a period of prosperity as well as industrial and technological growth. With the recent end of World War I, Americans yearned for a return to "normalcy" and political leaders that could provide it, thus turning to the leadership of Warren G. Harding.

Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates: The democrats nominated James M. Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt for his running mate. Republicans chose Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. Harding sensed popular longing for calm and won in a landslide victory.

Normalcy: Coined by Warren G. Harding in an address before the Home Market Club on May 14,1920 in Boston, this term came to symbolize, to powerful businessmen, the immediate abandonment of the foreign and domestic policies of Wilson. This meant a return to high protective tariffs and a reduction in taxes.

Sheppard-Towner Act: Lobbying for child-labor laws as well as worker protection for women and support for education by the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee resulted in the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. This act provided $1.2 million for prenatal and baby-care centers in rural areas.

Esch-Cummins Transportation Act: Also known as the Transportation Act of 1920, this act allowed the government to take over the railroads from Dec 26, 1917 until Mar 1, 1920. They were forced to carry heavy traffic while ignoring maintenance. The result was the Act of Feb 28, 1920 and attempted to insure the operation of the railroads.

Immigration Acts 1921, 1924, quota system: In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350,000 people annually. In 1924, they limited the number to 164,000 people annually. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U.S. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States.

KKK revival: A KKK was an organization founded in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866. Nathan Bedford Forrest served as the first Grand Wizard for this organization. They aimed to destroy radical political power and establish white supremacy in the U.S. They were formally disbanded in 1869, but then it was revived in 1915, led by William J. Simmons.

Harding scandals: Charles Forbes, Harry Daugherty, Sceretary of Interior Fall, Teapot Dome, Harry Sinclair: Forbes, director of the Veteran’s Bureau, in 1924, was exposed and convicted of stealing funds from it for personal economic growth. Daugherty, appointed attorney general, was forced from office in 1924 after receiving payments from violators of prohibition. Fall leased government oil reserves in 1921 to Sinclair, president of the Mammoth Oil Company. All suspects evaded prosecution.

Harding, Warren G.: Although Harding lacked the qualifications for presidency, his ordinary, friendly manner and advocacy of a return to "normalcy" resulted in a landslide vicotry in the election of 1920. Unfortunately, his administration was full of scandals and on Aug 2, 1923, Harding died in San Francisco of a heart attack.

Coolidge, Calvin: Harding’s death brought vice president Coolidge to the presidency, where his silences became legendary. As president, he held an antipathy to progressivism, believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters, and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control."

Taft, Chief Justice William Howard: Taft was appointed by President Harding in 1921. Under his jurisdiction, the Supreme Court overturned many progressive reform measures that were opposed by popular business interests. An example of this was the 1919 federal law imposing taxes on the products of child labor that he overturned.

Conference for Progressive Political Action, 1922 (CPPA): A committee designed to revive the practices of the progressive era, the CPPA adopted policies of pro-labor, pro-farmer, and government ownership of railroads and utilities such as telephones and electricity. It helped defeat the conservative Republican candidates in 1924.

Bureau of the Budget: Created by the Budget and Accounting Act on June 10, 1921, this act provided for the Bureau to be located in the treasury department with the director appointed by the president. The Bureau provided for a more efficient management of the budget within the treasury department.

Mellon, Secretary of Treasury tax cuts: Mellon was the secretary of the treasury under Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. Under his administration, Congress lowered the income tax rates for the wealthy. Mellon also succeeded in balancing the budget every year from 1921 to 1928.

Norris, Senator George, Muscle Shoals: Norris successfully prevented President Coolidge from selling a federal hydroelectric facility at Muscle Shoals, Alabama to auto-maker Henry Ford for only a portion of the value of the land. He also helped reject further tax cuts for the rich.

election of 1924: candidates, Robert La Follette, Progressive Party: CPPA delegates revived the Progressive Party at the meeting in Cleveland in July of 1924 and nominated Robert La Follette for president; the Socialist party and AFL supported this nomination, also. The Democratic Party nominated John W. Davis, a compromise candidate. The Republicans nominated Coolidge, who won with 54% of the vote.

McNary-Haugen Bill, vetoes: The veto of the McNary-Haugen Bill by Coolidge reflected a fear of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation." He denounced the bill as an unconstitutional scheme because it would benefit American agriculture at the expense of the general public’s welfare.

Federal Farm Board: This action was a result of Hoover’s response towards the problems faced by agriculture. He secured the passage of legislation that established the Board to Promote Cooperative Commodity Marketing. By doing so he was permitted to raise farm prices while still preserving the voluntarist principle.

Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds: Candidates Al Smith and Herbert Hoover represented the social and cultural differences of the 1920s. Smith was the Democratic candidate with the experience of being the governor of NY. Hoover was an inexperienced candidate that had never sought a public office before, yet he won.

Prohibition: Prohibition was first an issue before World War I. Progressives saw it as a way to deal with the social problems associated with alcoholism. Congress submitted the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic liquors in 1917. However, closet manufacturing of alcoholic beverages and a rise in criminal activities within the cities due to illegal importation of alcohol led to its repeal with the 21st amendment in 1933.

Volstead Act, Al Capone: The Volstead Act of 1919 established the Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department, but it lacked financial stability and was ineffective. Capone was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits; his illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties.

Sacco and Vanzetti Case: On Apr 15, 1920 two robbers killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree, Massachusetts. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder. The jury found them both guilty. Both men died in the electric chair on Aug 23, 1927.

Leopold and Loeb Case: The case in 1924 involved the murder of a young boy by two rich and intelligent college students. This case has been referred to for its moral lesson on human nature. It also shows that not only famous cases have been products of social developments; Americans responded to criminal cases also.

fundamentalists, Billy Sunday, Aimee Semple McPherson: During the twenties, Protestants who insisted on the divinity of the Bible, were angered by the theory of evolution. Fundamentalist legislatures even introduced bills to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools. An evangelist, Billy Sunday’s most famous quote reads, "If you turn hell upside down you will find ‘Made in Germany’ stamped on the bottom." Evangelist McPherson used drama and theatrical talent in her sermons, winning many followers.

Scopes Trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan: In 1925, the Tennessee legislature outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools. The American Civil Liberties Union volunteered to defend any teacher willing to challenge this law. William Jennings Bryan agreed to assist prosecution. Darrow was the head of ACLU’s lawyers.


Roaring Twenties

American culture and society in the 1920s were marked by a wave of new lifestyles and ideas. While the movie industry produced new celebrities and jazz music became popular, literature flourished and flappers defined a social trend. Amidst the speakeasies, jazz, and jitterbugs, Americans began to stray from traditional values as the culture changed.

Prosperity: This is a term that refers to the economic stability and opportunity experienced during the 1920s. The inventions of new consumer goods and home electrical products contributed to this prosperity. The economy during this time was stimulated by the new and booming electrical industry. A growth oriented business climate of the time was expansionist regarding American capitalism. This boom also was started with the invention of the affordable automobile.

KDKA, Pittsburgh: This was the first successful radio station in the U.S. to start broadcasting on Nov 2, 1920. It began the radio era when KDKA, based in Pittsburgh, broadcast the news of President Harding’s election. This radio station also influenced the establishment of the Federal Radio Commission.

Federal Radio Commission, 1927: The FRC was created by Congress and extended the principle of governmental regulation of business activity to the new radio industry. This can be seen as an example of the progressive spirit that still survived in the legislative branch and its effect on society.

Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: Formed in 1874, the Women’s Christian Temperance movement grew in momentum during the progressive era. This occurred because the war with Germany fermented wider support for the movement. By 1917 it successfully established prohibition in 19 states.

Anti-Saloon League: Another organization formed during the progressive era, the Anti-Saloon league was spurred by the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement in 1893. Progressives encouraged the legal abolition of alcohol. The result of the efforts of the ASL was the 18th amendment passed in 1918.

National Women’s Party, Alice Paul: During the twenties, feminist Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party lobbied for an equal-rights amendment to the Constitution. Other feminists, radicals, and labor activists condemned Paul’s stance on this issue. Unfortunately, the proposed amendment never succeeded through the party.

Garvey, Marcus, Universal Negro Improvement Association: Garvey was a black nationalist leader who created the "Back to Africa" movement in the U.S. In 1907, he led a printers’ strike for higher wages at a printing company in Kingston. In 1914 he founded the UNIA and in 1916, he started a weekly newspaper called the Negro World.

Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes: Hughes was an American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry. In the 1920s he was a prominent figure during the Harlem Renaissance and was the Poet Laureate of Harlem. The Harlem Renaissance refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. However, the movement depended on the patronage of white people.

de Mille, Cecil B.: He was an American motion picture director and producer who in 1913 joined with Jesse Lasky and Samuel Goldwyn to form the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company. De Mille produced and directed the first feature film made in Hollywood called The Squaw Man in 1914.

Valentino, Rudolph, Chaplin, Charlie: Valentino was an actor who was idolized by female fans of the 1920s. His first silent film was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) but his peak was with The Sheik (1921). Charlie Chaplin was a silent film actor who appeared in 1914 with the Keystone Film Company.

Ford, Henry, the Model T, Sloan, Alfred P.: In 1893, Ford completed the construction of his first automobile and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company. In 1908 he started production of the Model-T. In 1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-lines in his plants.

Johnson, James Weldon: American author, lawyer, and diplomat who reflected his deep consideration of black life in the United States, James Weldon Johnson served as field secretary of the NAACP from 1916-1920. In 1920 he became the NAACP’s first black executive secretary.

Ruth, Babe, Dempsey, Jack: Babe Ruth was the most popular player in the history of baseball. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League. Jack Dempsey was an American professional boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926.

Lindbergh, Charles, Spirit of St. Louis: Lindbergh was an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. On May 20, 1927, he was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. Flying in his single engine plane, Spirit of St. Louis, he flew from New York City to Paris.

The Jazz Singer: The Jazz Singer was a movie, made in 1927, that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. Fred Astaire was involved with the choreography in the movie along with other famous dancers such as Berkeley, Balanchine, and De Mille.

the Jazz Age: The Jazz Age is the general label of what the twenties represented. Such a title reflects the revolution in music during the time, when jazz music became popular and in style. This name also refers to the general prosperity and liberation of the people during the time; those were the "good times."

Freud’s, Sigmund theories: Freud was a Viennese physician whose studies of human sexuality and human psychology first appeared in the 1890s. However, his ideas became popular during the 1920s. His lectures in 1909 at Clark University advanced psychoanalysis in the United States.

Barton, Bruce, The Man Nobody Knows 1925: Barton was an advertising executive that described Jesus Christ as a managerial genius who "picked up twelve men from the bottom ranks of business and forged them into an organization that conquered the world." By this he referred to the public’s admiration of leaders like President Harding.

"the Lost Generation": This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society, these writers were seen to be ex-patriots. The writers include: Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and William Carlos Williams. They never formed a formal literary movement, but individually they were all influential writers.

Lewis, Sinclair, Main Street, Babbitt: Main Street was written in 1920 and is where Lewis first developed the theme of the monotony, emotional frustration, and lack of values in American middle-class life. Babbitt, written in 1922, comments on how people conform blindly to the standards of their environment.

Mencken, H.L., editor of the magazine, The American Mercury: Mencken founded the magazine The American Mercury in 1924. Mencken remained the editor until 1933. He targeted his work at the shortcomings of democracy and the middle-class American culture.

Eliot, T.S., The Waste Land: Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature for his poem The Waste Land. This poem that is one of the most widely discussed literary works. Written in 1922, The Waste Land expresses Eliot’s conception of the contrast between modern society and societies of the past.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald wrote this book in five months and completed it in 1925. The plot was a sensitive and satiric story of the pursuit of success and the collapse of the American dream. Being one of the writers of the Lost Generation, Fitzgerald was bitter because of the effects of the war.

Dreiser, Theodore, An American Tragedy: In 1925, An American Tragedy had great success. Dreiser believed in representing life honestly in his fiction and accomplished this through accurate detail and descriptions of the urban settings of his stories. He also portrays his characters as victims of social and economic forces.

Hemingway, Ernest, A Farewell to Arms: In Hemingway’s novels, he usually depicted the lives of two types of people: men and women deprived of faith in their values by World War I, and men of simple character and primitive emotions. This was Hemingway’s second most important novel next to The Sun Also Rises (1926).

New woman: During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on women. Women of the twenties were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. The burden of domestic chores were alleviated with new technology, while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude.

Flappers: Called a flapper because they would leave their boot flaps open, the flapper was the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age, the flapper was usually characterized by her "bobbed" hair, dangling cigarette, heavy make-up, and her ever shortening skirt length.


Foreign Policy in the 1920s

In relation to the rest of the world, the United States drew into isolation, as reflected through its foreign policy during the twenties. New restrictions on immigration and a lack of membership in international organizations, such as the League of Nations and the World Court, contributed to this isolationist period of America. Focus during this era was upon domestic affairs more so than foreign affairs.

Collective Security: The term "collective security" was first mentioned in the inaugural speech made by president Franklin D. Roosevelt on Oct 5, 1937. In that speech Roosevelt refereed to the need to quarantine aggressor nations by acting upon them in a collective measure, thus saying that nations need to stick together in order to combat evil. The isolationist disposition of the U.S. called for collective security, for Americans sought to secure their nation after the effects of World War I and maintain prosperity.

World Court: Also named the International Court of Justice, the World Court was established in 1946 exceeding from a charter that was established by the UN. The principle is to hear cases that extended from the different participants in the court; not all cases submitted would be tried; the World Court has the option of choosing cases.

reparations: Reparations is a term applied to the issuing of money from one nation to another. The money is usually given to a nation that has been damaged by the destructiveness of war due to the acts from the other county. During the First and Second World Wars, reparations were a major concern.

Twenty-One Demands: Japan in 1915, at the end of WWI, invaded the city of Shandong and forced China to hand over the right of Japanese imperialism in the former German regions plus the city of Shandong. This act prompted the formulating of the Twenty-One demands written by China. These demands recognized Japan’s rights in Shandong.

Lansing-Ishii Treaty: Signed on Nov 2, 1917, this treaty was a series of notes between U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing and the Japanese military informer Kikujiro Ishii. Pertaining to this treaty was the reconciliation of the two countries on the issue of foreign policy in the Far East. It also helped to reinstate the Open Door Policy.

Washington Disarmament Conference: Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. At the conference which was called by the United States the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific ocean were discussed. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have, and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have.

Five Power Treaty, Four Power Treaty, Nine Power Treaty: The 4 Power treaty (US, GB, Fr., and Japan) discussed respect towards Pacific nations. The 5 power treaty (US, GB, Fr., USSR, and Italy) halted battleship construction for 10 years and developed the ideal tonnage ratio. The 9 Power Treaty restated the Open Door Policy.

5-5-3-1.75-1.75 ratio: These ratios were conceived on Dec 14, 1920 at the Washington Arms Conference. The numbers are the allowed amount of tonnage for each nations’ supply of battleships. The ideal tonnage ratio for the countries were 5-US, 5-GB, 3-Japan, 1.75-France, 1.75 Italy.

Dawes Plan, Young Plan: The Dawes Plan, Aug 1924, regarded reparations payments and consisted of an annual allotment of 2.5 billion gold pieces to the US from Germany. The Young Plan signed on Jun 7, 1929 was for the final installment of the reparation payments and reduced the amount due by Germany significantly.

Kellogg-Briand Treaty: This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27, 1928, it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy.

Sending troops into Nicaragua, relations, 1927-1928: The United States refused to recognize the government established in Nicaragua under the regime of Emiliano Chamorro. Calvin Coolidge, the president at the time felt it necessary to send troops to Nicaragua. However, by 1933 Hoover expelled the troops for they were no longer needed.


Hoover Administration

When Herbert Hoover was elected to the presidency in 1928, Americans viewed him as a man who would further boost the nation’s growing prosperity. During his term of office, however, came the onset of the Great Depression, and the ensuing struggle of the government to relieve Americans and recover the economy. Unfortunately for Hoover, his ideologies and legislation were not as effective in restoring prosperity to the nation.

The Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922: This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced, the U.S. would become self sufficient.

"Rugged Individualism"; American Individualism, 1922: The ideal quality which every American should possess, "rugged individualism" meant people who were self made individuals, who could handle the pressures given by a damaged society, and who would rise above them in order to succeed. These ideas were encompassed in Hoover’s book.

Welfare capitalism: Hoover welcomed this idea and urged further movement in this direction. Hoover also believed that cutthroat capitalism was unnecessary. He believed that economic development demanded corporate cooperation in the areas of workers wages and production regulations.

Voluntarism: Hoover believed that a socially responsible economic order could only be brought about by the voluntary action of capitalist leaders and not through governmental persuasion. Hoover saw this as a way to accelerate the decade’s trend towards corporate consolidation and cooperation.

Federal Reserve Board: The Federal Reserve Board tried to establish an easy credit policy. To accomplish this they increased the rate on federal reserve notes to decrease speculation; it also warned member banks not to loan money for the purpose of buying stocks. Their message went unheard, and the stock market crash of 1929 resulted.

Black Thursday: Black Thursday refers to Oct 29, 1929 when the great stock market crash occurred. The crash was caused by a number of ailments: the decline of agriculture, the unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks, and the panic which led to bank foreclosures all over the United States.

Causes of the Great Depression: The Great Depression was not solely caused by the stock market crash in Oct of 1929. On the contrary there were many other factors involved. The inflation in agriculture, the uncontrolled policies of the stock market, the overproduction of goods by industries, the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation.

Depression as an International Event: Due to the devastating effects that the Depression had on the American way of life a spiral of depressions sprung up all over Europe. America could not keep up with international trading thus further deepening the problem. The areas hardest hit was England for it depended greatly on U.S. exports.

Trickle Down Theory: Applied by Herbert Hoover, the Trickle Down theory was an economic ideal which held the belief that the government should get involved in the economy by pumping money into it, and thus creating a surplus supply of money that would "trickle" down onto the rest of society.

Reconstruction Finance Corp., (RFC): Created under the presidency of Herbert Hoover, the RFC was designed to give out loans to banks, railroads, and monopolistic companies in order to pump money back into the economy during the years of the Depression.

Federal Home Loan Act: Under the presidential term of Hoover in 1931 the Federal Home Loan Act was created. Within the act a five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans.

National Credit Corporation: Created in 1931, the National Credit Corporation under the persuasion of Herbert Hoover got the largest banks in the country, at that time, to provide lending agencies that would be able to give banks, on the brink of foreclosure, money that could be used for loans.

Hoover Dam: Originally called Boulder Dam, it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona, Hoover Dam provides flood control, electricity, and irrigation for farms. As part of the New Deal it was constructed between 1931 to 1935 and began operations in 1936.

the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930: Like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff, the Hawley-Smoot Tariff also rose protective tariffs on the United States. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they’ve ever been. The isolationist principle also reflect the isolationist move the US was moving towards in the 1920s..

Emergency Committee for Employment: The Emergency Committee for Employment was created in 1930 under the presidency of Herbert Hoover. The goal for the committee was to coordinate efforts between other agencies in order to provide relief for the massive unemployed during the years of the Great Depression.

Farmers’ Holiday Association: In 1931 farmers from the Midwest got together to discuss the methods they would use in order to stop the policies that devastated the agricultural economy. Out of the meeting came the decision to withhold grain and livestock from the economy.

Hoover Moratorium: The Hoover Moratorium was held in 1931 to discuss the payment of the allied war debts sustained during WWI. Though the issue was never reconciled due to the fact that Britain and other European Countries went off the gold standard before the plan could be implemented.

Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover’s popularity plummeted because of it.

"Hooverville": "Hooverville" was a name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president. The name was termed due to the cold, unfriendly disposition that Hoover took on the policy of helping out the poor. Hoover believed that giving economic aid to the poor would stifle the economy.

Clark Memorandum: The memorandum was called by the U.S. Representative J.Reuben Clark in Dec of 1928. The purpose of the meeting was to reinstate the principles of the Monroe Doctrine to the events that were happening in Latin America; it was contradictory to the ideals of the Roosevelt Corollary.

London Naval Conference: US, GB, Japan, France, and Italy convened in 1930 to come to a mutual agreement pertaining to the number of battleships that were in existence. The number of battleships was a great concern to these nations for they wanted to live in peace with one another, not in a war like situation.

Stimson Doctrine: Based on the principles of the Kellogg-Briand pact, the Hoover-Stimson doctrine was a collection of letters from the U.S. to China and Japan. These letters written on Jan 7, 1932, concluded that the U.S. did not formally recognize any change in territory if it was brought about by armed forces.

Mexico’s naturalization of oil: .The president of Mexico in 1938 was a man named Lazaro Cardenas. Cardenas nationalized many oil companies, from England and the United States, valued then at 450 million dollars. The conditions were that Mexico had to give fair compensation to the countries.

Ambassador Morrow: Turned into an ambassador for Mexico, Dwight D. Morrow also named Ambassador Morrow was a worker for J.P.Morgan and Company. The main issue that he focused on was the methods he could use to reconcile differences between the Mexican government and the Church.

Norris-La Guardia (anti-junction) Act, 1932: The Norris-La Guardia Act forbade the issuing of injunctions to maintain anti-union contracts of employment, the prevention to perform work, and the restraining of an act committed by either a group or of an individual striker.

Election of 1932: candidates, issues: The Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was Franklin D. Roosevelt. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Hoover’s platform was to increase the government’s role in the economy; Roosevelt’s message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy period." Roosevelt won.


Roosevelt and the New Deal

Declining appeal of Hoover to the public led to the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. Roosevelt’s extensive program to restore the economy made up the New Deal. Overall, these legislative measures dealt with assisting people financially, reform other systems and institutions, and recover the prosperity before the Depression. While not all were entirely successful, the various programs all contributed to the eventual, though gradual, recovery of the economy.

Age of the Radio: Radio reached its climax in the 1930s when millions of Americans listened to network news commentators, musical programs, and comedy shows. Also, the president and business companies utilized this resource to attract people, sell products, or to promote a political issue.

Fireside Chats: During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed "fireside chats." The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression, and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it.

Roosevelt, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt is portrayed as a U.S. humanitarian and displayed her politics and social issues as a wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. She mostly fought for women and minority groups. Many of her books include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and This Is My Story and On My Own.

Perkins, Frances, Secretary of Labor: Being the first woman to be appointed to a Cabinet position (1933-1945), Perkins was also a social reformer. During her term, Perkins strengthened the Department of Labor, pushed for a limit on employment age, and developed the CCC, the Social Security Act, and Fair Labor Standards Act (1938).

Brain Trust: The term brain trust refers to the individual people outside the Franklin Roosevelt appointed presidential cabinet that helped in the decision making process of the president. The men most known are: Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell, and Adolph A. Berle. Moley was conservative while Tugwell and Berle were interested in reform.

Keynesian economics: Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created.

Pump-priming: Supported by Roosevelt, this theory pumped governmental money to the poor so they could buy products. This would increase sales and cause a demand for that product. This demand in turn will produce jobs for the poor. Now that the poor have jobs they have the necessary income to buy products and this cycle occurs again.

Deficit spending: The manner in which the government spends more than it receives is refereed to as deficit spending. This is done to stimulate the economy through the rise in government costs or due to the decrease of taxation. On the other hand, deficit spending is also seen as inefficiency of government spending.

Monetary policy, fiscal policy: The policy gave government control of the money supply and created a high economic rate to stabilized prices and wages. Fiscal policy is regulation of trade between domestic or foreign goods. Import duties are still possible, but fiscal policy makes an exception because its purpose is to raise revenue.

New Deal: In light of the Great Depression, FDR proposed a series of relief and emergency measures known collectively as the New Deal. Through these measures, FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs, by relieving the plight of the people, and thus recover the nation’s wealth.

Hundred Days: Measures taken during Roosevelt’s first days in office, from Mar 9 to Jun 16, enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy. The Hundred Days symbolized the beginning stages of the New Deal because the measures taken focused on relief, recovery and reform: key phrases from the New Deal itself.

Relief, Recovery, and Reform: These three areas, relief, recovery, and reform, are the categories into which the New Deal was split. The Relief category was defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. The Recovery category put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression (i.e. agriculture and industry). Reform was a category in which the government tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty (i.e. banking system).

"Bank Holiday": Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 called for a "bank holiday" which permitted banks that were hurt from the depression to close down for a few days in order to regain stability. Further help to relieve the problem of the foreclosing of banks was the Emergency Banking Act which was passed during the holiday to help open more banks.

Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933: Implemented during the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term the Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed the reopening of healthy banks. The act provided healthy banks with a Treasury Department license and handled the affairs of the failed banks.

Glass-Steagall Act, 1933: In February of 1933 the Glass-Steagal Act was signed. The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses and other major corporations.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC): This measure as the second of the banking acts enacted during Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office, passed in Jun of 1933. The Federal Deposit Insurance Committee allowed all bank deposits up to 5,000 dollars; it separated deposit banking from investment banking.

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA): Placed under the PWA, Jun 1933, the NIRA focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped money into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition.

National Industrial Recovery Administration (NRA): Promoting recovery, the National Industrial recovery Administration was designed to administer the codes of "fair competition" brought forth by the NIRA. Such codes established production limits, set wages and working conditions, and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices. The main focus of the NRA was to break wage cuts and strikes, both which stifled the economy.

Section 7a of the NRA: Developed by Senator Robert F. Wagner of New York, section 7a allowed the workers to organize and enabled them to bargain collectively. In addition, Wagner helped organized labor by not allowing employers from discriminating against union members.

"The Blue Eagle," Johnson, Hugh: Hugh Johnson was the head of the National Recovery Administration who quickly created the organization and rallied support for the NRA by throwing parades in all of the main cities across the United States. "The Blue Eagle" was the symbol of the NRA.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), second AAA 1938: The first AAA was rendered unconstitutional years after the Act of 1938. It tried to help mend the ailing problems that had plagued agriculture since the ending of the First World War. In order to stop the problem of "dust bowls" created by the overuse of soil, the government, under the AAA, granted subsidies to farms who did not continually use the same plot of soil. The government also tried to restrict the production of certain commodities.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Created under Franklin Roosevelt, the CCC aimed at men particularly in the age group from 18-25. This program created jobs that would try to conserve the nation’s natural resources. The CCC would take these men out of the workforce and place them on jobs that would reforest certain areas, teach fire prevention and soil conservation, and help to stop soil erosion. Between 1933-1942
3 million men were put to work under the CCC; each man would work for one year.

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): One of the most powerful social workers, Harry Hopkins, administered this program directed at local causes. Franklin D. Roosevelt created the FERA in May 1933 and as a part of the New Deal, this measure allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states.

Civil Works Administration (CWA): In Nov 1933 relief administrator Harry Hopkins convinced Franklin D. Roosevelt to create the CWA. The CWA provided temporary public works that allocated a billion dollars for short-term projects for the jobless during the winter but was demolished when the spring arrived.

Public Works Administration (PWA): Harold Ickes: Headed by Harold Ickes, the Secretary of Interior, who was cautious and suspicious, the PWA was a governmental agency which spent $4 billion on 34,000 public works project which constructed dams, bridges, and public buildings.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Senator Norris: Pushed for by Senator George Norris, the TVA was a governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams, the construction of hydroelectric dams, and controlling floods. Created in 1933, the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when nuclear plants were introduced.

National Youth Administration (NYA): As part of President Roosevelt’s New Deal plan, he set up the National Youth Administration to provide part time work for high school and college students. This agency served more than two million people and was set up because students were the most rebellious due to their exposure to new ideas.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC, established in 1934, protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud. The SEC required the registration of all companies and securities and required disclosure of company information and registration of all company securities exchanged.

Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC): As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation’s tragedy of foreclosed mortgages, the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. This valiant effort allowed one-fifth of all U.S. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression

Farm Credit Administration: During Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office, an important federal agency was established; it was named the Farm Credit Administration. It was designed to help rural Americans refinance their farmland; it also helped to restore the livelihood that was missing in agriculture.

Federal Housing Authority (FHA): This agency forced small down payments and low-interest loans on home sales and thus stimulated the economy. This stimulation allowed a new market for private homes that accelerated the construction-industry through the utilization of technology to mass-produce homes.

Gold Clause Act, 1935: The Gold Clause Act stated that private contracts dealing with certain railroad bonds were unable to interfere in the coining of money. The regulation in the value of money for those areas defined were specifically the areas given to Congress when the Constitution was written.

Works Progress Administration (WPA), Hopkins, Harry, Federal Arts Project: Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935, the eight year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650,000 miles of roads, 124,000 bridges, and 125,000 schools, hospitals, arts, and post offices were built. The Federal Arts Project created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorated posts for offices and courthouses with murals.

Rural Electrification Administration (REA): The REA was an agency that provided low-interest loans to utility companies and farmers’ cooperatives to reach the 90% of rural farmers who lacked electrical power. This program was so successful that by 1941 40% of these farms had received electrical power.

Wagner Act, 1935: Supported by R. F. Wagner, the Wagner Act of 1935 established defined unjust labor practices, secured workers the right to bargain collectively, and established the National Labor Relations Board. As an integral part of the New Deal, it catalyzed the force of unionization. (Also known as the National Labor Relation Act)

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): This agency was assembled by Congress in 1935 and oversaw the National Labor Relation Act (1935). As an independent agency, the NLRB controlled the secret ballot elections during collective bargaining and managed the complaints of unfairness by the employers or unions.

Revenue Act, 1935: This act allowed the government to raise a spectrum of tariffs ranging from personal taxes at higher income levels to rises in corporate taxes to having heavier levies on gifts and estates. As an expression of the class spirit of the Second New Deal, there were many loopholes.

Social Security Act: Created by the U.S. Congress on August 14,1935, this act supported old-age advantages by utilizing a pay roll tax on employers and employees. This originated from the Townsend clubs which pushed for a $200 pension. Soon the program was expanded to include dependents, the disabled, and adjusted with the inflation.

Resettlement Administration: As part of the New Deal and led by Rexford Tugwell, this agency created loans for small farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own farms. Even though the Resettlement Administration lasted two years, it satisfied the requirements of the governmental concern of sharecroppers.

Emergency Relief Appropriation Act: As part of the Second New Deal in relation to the high unemployment rate in April 1935, Congress was forced into passing the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act in which Roosevelt was granted five billion dollars, part of which he used to set up the Works Progress Administration.

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, 1936: The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was formulated to replace the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The act, by providing benefit payments to farmers who practiced soil conservation methods, helped to stem the overproduction in agriculture thus stabilizing farm prices.

Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act: The act created the Farm Security Administration and replaced the Resettlement Administration. This agency created low-interest loans allowing farmers and sharecroppers to buy their own land. By 1941, they had loaned 1 billion dollars assisting thousands of farmers.

Fair Labors Standards Act: maximum hours and minimum wage: This act was created by the Roosevelt administration of northerners to undermine the South’s competitive edge. It established a minimum wage for most workers while it concurrently created a forty-four hour work week and banned child labor.

Results of the New Deal: Several accomplishments of the New Deal contributed to the nation’s economy. For the first time, the federal government assumed responsibility in reviving economic prosperity, vastly increasing the power of the president. The legislative measures brought reform and reinstated confidence in the people.

Twentieth Amendment: Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. The amendment also set the date of the President’s inauguration back to Jan 20.

Wikersham Convention: Officially named the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement, the Wikersham Convention in May of 1929 discussed the probing problems of prohibition, the treatment of juvenile delinquents, the cost of law enforcement, and other similar problems that faced society during that era.

Twenty-First Amendment: Ratified within the span of 10 months, the Twenty-First Amendment on Dec 5, 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment which dealt with the passing of prohibition. The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances.

Good Neighbor Policy: Stated in 1933 by Roosevelt in his inaugural address, the ideology was that the U.S. would respect the rights of other nations. This policy was used on various occasions of armed troops being sent to Latin America to maintain political stability. Ultimately this resulted in support from Latin America during World War II.

Recognition of the USSR, 1933: The United States didn’t recognize Russia because of the betrayal when Russia withdrew from WWI due to the Russian Revolution in March of 1917. Also, at the treaty of Versailles, Wilson and the other Allies agreed to weaken Russia. Only until Roosevelt’s presidency did the U.S. recognize Russia.

Indian Reorganization Act, 1934: Authorized by the U.S. Congress, it allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. Enacted on Jun 18, 1934, it provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.

Coalition of the Democratic Party: blacks, unions, intellectuals, big cities machines,

South: Franklin D. Roosevelt relied on state and local Democratic leaders who pushed beyond the traditional Democratic base. Because blacks, intellectuals, big city machines, and Southerners favored these relief programs, they merged with the Democratic Party.

"conservative coalition" in Congress: Because of the combination of a majority in Congress and the agreeableness of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Congress was viewed as conservative. An example of this is that the Emergency Banking Act passed through Congress in one day.

American Federation of Labor, AFL: The AFL was led by Samuel Gompers and was composed of craft unions that excluded unskilled and semiskilled workers. The size of the union grew as production in the 1900’s grew. By 1935, the dissidents formed the Committee for Industrial Organization.

United Mine Workers, UMW: This union was created by militant leader John L. Lewis in 1890; its methods, based on his stands on increases in pay, safer working conditions, and political stands, reflect Lewis’ military style. In 1935 it had about 250,000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO.

Steel Workers Organization Committee, SWOC: Led by Philip Murray, SWOC gained recognition by striking against U.S. Steel. By March 1937, U.S. Steel recognized the union, gave the workers a wage increase, and accepted a 40-hour week. Because of this action, many other companies began to do the same.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), Lewis, John L.: John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established the CIO in the November of 1935. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers, steelworkers, and electrical workers.

sit down strikes: These strikes were characterized by employees occupying the work place yet doing nothing. This type of passive resistance allowed the employees to halt production, thus paralyzing the business. This tactic was utilized in the strike by the United Automobile Workers against General Motors in 1937.

Liberty League: This group was made of conservative Democrats who were against the economic and fiscal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. It lasted for four years and was composed of famous members like Alfred E. Smith and John W. Davis. Ending in 1940, they supported the Republican candidate, Alf Landon.

Long, Huey, Share the Wealth, Smith, Gerald L.K.: Both radical agitators, Long was known for his Share the Wealth program that painted a picture in which "every man [was] a king." Smith decried blacks, Catholics, Communists, and labor unions in the Union Party (1936), America First Party (1944), and the Christian National Crusade (1947).

Coughlin, Father Charles: Coughlin used his status as a U.S. Roman Catholic "radio priest" to announce his political and economic views. He asserted reactionary views and revolved around anti-New Deal and ant-Semitic views. In addition, he created the magazine Social Justice which attacked Communism, Wall Street, and Jews.

Townsend, Dr. Francis: Townsend developed the Townsend Plan in 1933 which embraced 5 million supporters. It called for a pension for citizens over 60 years of age to receive $200 provided by the federal government. Although Congress rejected it, Townsend’s ideals were an early foundation of the Social Security Act.

Hughes, Chief Justice Charles Evans: Hughes guided the Supreme Court in the attack against President Roosevelt in his plan to "pack" the Supreme Court in 1937. Also, he upheld the Wagner Act in which workers had the right of collective bargaining in the National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel.

Schechter v. United States: This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code; these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation.

"court packing" proposal: This proposal was announced by Franklin D. Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age, totaling six in all. After Chief Justice Evan Hughes’ leadership in expressing their disapproval in this plan, Congress and the American people disapproved of the action as well. This resulted in some New Dealers leaving the president’s side and humiliated President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

New Members of the Supreme Court: Black, Hugo, Reed, Stanley F., Frankfurter, Felix, Douglass, William O.: These four men were appointed by Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1937 to 1939 to guarantee a foundation for a liberal majority and thus extending Roosevelt’s New Deal policies after leaving office.

Election of 1936: candidates, issues: The candidates included Franklin D. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party, Alfred M. Landon from the Republican party, and William Lemke from the Union Party. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal’s popularity. In the end, FDR won in a landslide victory.

Literacy Digest Poll: The poll was initiated by Franklin D. Roosevelt during his presidency and involved in a court case: Literacy Digest poll v. Gallop Poll. There, they debated on the validity of each poll in relation to Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies.

Second New Deal: Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935, the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless, to help the unemployed receive jobs, to give assistance to the rural poor, organized labor, and social welfare. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich, create harder regulations on businesses, and to incorporate social-welfare benefits.

Robinson-Patman Act, 1936: Originated from a Federal Trade Commission chain store investigation, this act was an amendment to the Clayton Act; it eliminated unfair business practices and destroyed monopolies. On Jun 19, 1936, this act was passed and applied to all buyers or sellers, and merchants large or small.

Miller-Tydings Act, 1937: The purpose of this act was to amend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by exempting any contract or agreement ("horizontal agreements") in which a product would be set at a significantly lower price. A violation of this would be an unfair method as stated in the Federal Trade Commission Act.

"Roosevelt recession": Although the economy improved in 1936 and early 1937, it once again fell back in mid 1937, when industrial production and steel output declined, and unemployment statistics increased. Some of the major factors of this recession were federal policies that greatly reduced consumer income.

Hatch Act, 1939: Supported by Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico and passed by Congress on Aug 2, 1939, the Hatch Act tried to exterminate corruption during elections. It disallowed bribery of votes, restricted federal employees from political campaigning, and limited donations from individuals which were to be given to political campaigns.

dust bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath: "Okies" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas, also known as "dust bowls," once fertile land, became waste areas and unusable. The Grapes of Wrath written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family.



The two decades prior to the outbreak of hostilities in World War II were a period of increasing unrest both politically and socially in many areas of the world. Some of the issues were related to unresolved conflicts left over from World War I. Depression and out of control inflation totally destabilized Germany’s government and allowed the rise to power of the Nazis, who were able to capitalize on a German sense of injustice and nationalistic frustration.

Montevideo Conference: This conference was held in 1933. A U.S. delegation to the conference endorsed a document that declared "no state has the right to intervene in the internal affairs of another. Secretary of State furthered the interests of Latin American States when he asked for a reduction of trade barriers.

Rio de Janeiro Conference, 1933: Meeting of 19 American republics, in which the American treaty of reciprocal Assistance was signed, committing each republic to assist another in times of any attack or if an American republic were threatened by a situation not involving an armed attack, members would meet and decide necessary actions to be taken

Buenos Aires Conference, 1936: It was opened by Roosevelt when he stated in a speech that any non-American state seeking "to commit acts of aggression against us will face a Hemisphere wholly prepared to consult together for our mutual safety and our mutual good." Also a pact was adopted promising consultation if war was imminent

Lima Conference, 1938: Another conference before WWII, the Lima Conference adopted the Declaration of Lima, and also restated the sovereignty of the American states; Additionally, it expressed the U.S. determination to resist "all foreign intervention or activities that may threaten them."

Declaration of Panama, 1939: Adopted at Panama city by the foreign ministers of the American Republics, sixteen resolutions were passed to deal with the outbreak of war in Europe. Resolution no. XIV entitled "Declaration of Panama," stated that American waters should be free of hostilities from non-belligerent nations.

Act of Havana, 1940: The act was created to prevent the transfer to European colonies to Germany in the western hemisphere. It stated that the American Republics would take over and administer any European possession in the New World endangered by aggression. It was unanimously approved by the Pan American Nations.

Jones Act, 1916: This act provided for the government of the Philippines and committed the U.S. to the future independence of the Philippines. Descendants of Spanish subjects in 1899 were designated citizens. Voting rights were given to all literate male citizens over 21, the Philippine Congress was made elective, and Supreme Court justices were to be appointed by the president.

Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines: The act eliminated certain objectionable provisions of a previous act known as the Hawes-Cutting Act, which provided for the independence of the Philippine Islands after 12 years; It also provided for trade relations with the U.S. effective 10 years after the inauguration of an authorized government.

Nye Committee: Instituted due to public concern over the issue that the U.S. was dragged into WW I, this committee was headed by Senator Gerald Nye. The Committee held hearings between 1934 and 1936 and compiled evidence of involvement of U.S. banks and corporations financing WWI and supplying arms and loans to the Allied nations.

"merchants of death": This term refers to the business corporations and banks who were blamed for dragging the U.S. into the war because they were desperate to protect the millions of dollars invested in loans and weapon sales to Britain and France. All these allegations were investigated by the Nye committee.

neutrality legislation: A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935, 1936, and 1937, these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to belligerents. It also warned U.S. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels, prohibited loans to belligerent nations, and instituted the cash and carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U.S. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country.

Popular Front: In order to gain the support of the Allies, Russia’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs MaksimM. Litvinov asked for action against fascist governments. Russia sought a formation of united-front governments in foreign countries. This united or popular front formed in 1938, called for a collaboration of Communist Socialist to fight fascism.

Spanish Civil War, Franco: This war lasted from 1936-1939. In July of 1936, fascist Franco led the Spanish army units to overthrow the elected government in Spain. The revolution was supported by Spanish conservatives, monarchists, landowners, industrialists, and Roman Catholic hierarchy.

Ethiopia: Mussolini was intent on building an African empire comparable to those of the European nations. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia which did not have a way of stopping him from invading because Ethiopia was such a weak nation without a strong army and a supply of ammunition.

Mussolini: Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combitimmento after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. He came into power in the 1920s, and by 1926, Mussolini had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime. He also pursued an aggressive policy which won him support in every sector of the population.

Japan Attacks China, Chiang Kai-shek: Japan was taken over by a militaristic government that had expansionist dreams. In 1931, Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and installed a puppet government. In 1937, Japan declared war against China; China’s leader, Chiang Kai-shek, was powerless to stop it.

Panay Incident, 1937: Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U.S. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships, which were evacuating American officials from China. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships, made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.

"Quarantine speech," 1937: Roosevelt recognized the power of the antiwar feelings demonstrated at home; not one to push ahead of public opinion, he assured a visiting Australian leader in 1935 that America would never enter a war. In a 1937 speech, he suggested the possibility of a "quarantine" of aggressor nations.

Hitler, Nazism: Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party came into power in 1933 and clamped a dictatorship on Germany. His racist views targeted all non-white Christians who expressed anti-German ideas. He pursued a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy, evident in his plan to raise a half million man army and expand German borders to Russia.

Kristallnacht: Meaning "The Night of Broken Glass," this rampage was carried out by Nazis all over Germany and Austria to destroy Jewish homes and structures. Thousands of homes were vandalized and synagogues were burned to the ground. Jewish businesses and schools were wrecked and looted. Nothing was spared.

Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain: This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. Chamberlain, representing England, gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler. He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill.

Austria Annexed: Hitler annexed Austria in 1938 and expanded the German borders. Nazi sympathizers in Austria welcomed Hitler’s annexation of Austria. He proclaimed an Anschluss between Austria and Germany and German troops rolled into the capital city Vienna. Hitler’s actions here furthered his plans to expand German borders and his rule.

nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR: Stalin, who advocated a popular front against fascism, signed a pact with Nazi Germany on August 24, 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and divided up Poland between the two nations: the USSR and Germany. This was a severe blow to the Popular Front.